a phrase where adjacent or closely connected words begin with the same phoneme: one wet wellington; free phone; several silent, slithering snakes.
a word with a meaning opposite to another: hot - cold, light - dark, light- heavy.
A word may have more than one word as an antonym: cold - hot/
warm; big - small/tiny/little/titchy.
words which have the same meaning as another word, or very similar: wet/damp.
Avoids overuse of any word; adds variety
These are verbs that are used together with other verbs. For example:
we are going Lucy has arrived can you play
Coherence and cohesion
An effective text needs to be coherent and cohesive.
The term coherence refers to the underlying logic and consistency of a text.
The ideas expressed should be relevant to one another so that the reader can follow the meaning.
A word made up of two other words: football, headrest, broomstick
A conditional sentence is one in which one thing depends upon another.
Conditional sentences often contain the conjunction if:
I’ll help you if I can.
If the weather’s bad, we might not go out.
Other conjunctions used in conditionals are unless, providing, provided and as long as.
Direct speech and indirect speech
There are two ways of reporting what somebody says, direct speech and indirect speech.
In direct speech, we use the speaker’s original words demarcated with inverted commas.
Helen said, “ I’m going home.”
In indirect (or reported) speech, we report what was said but do not use the
exact words of the original speaker.
Helen said (that) she was going home.
Use of a metaphor or simile to create a particular impression or mood. A writer may develop an idea of a character’s military approach to life by using phrases and words which are linked with the army, such as: he was something of a loose cannon (metaphor); he rifled through the papers; his
arm shot out; he marched into the room; he paraded his knowledge.
words which have the same spelling as another, but different meaning: the
calf was eating/my calf was aching; the North Pole/totem pole; he is a Pole.
Pronunciation may be different: a lead pencil/the dog’s lead; furniture polish/
words which have the same spelling or pronunciation as another, but
different meaning or origin. May be a homograph or homophone.
words which have the same sound as another but different meaning or
different spelling: read/reed; pair/pear; right/write/rite. A homonym.
words which echo sounds associated with their meaning: clang, hiss, crash,
use of language to create a vivid sensory image - often visual. May include:
Vocabulary choice of synonym, for example sprinted/ran/raced, selection
of adjectives and adverbs
simile he ran like the wind
metaphor his feet had wings
a form of metaphor in which language relating to human action, motivation
and emotion is used to refer to non human agents or objects or abstract
concepts: the weather is smiling on us today; Love is blind.